Physics 104 Topics for 3rd Exam Electromagnetic waves: What are they, E and B fields recreating one another, understood by Maxwell from theory of electricity and magnetism, speed, wavelength, frequency, period, range for visible, energy carried, nature of polarization, polarization by selective absorption and by reflection, effect of sending polarized light through an optically active material Geometrical Optics: Specular vs diffuse reflection, index of refraction (cause, effect on wave speed and wavelength), dispersion, angles of reflection and refraction from smooth surface, total internal reflection Images made by flat mirrors, ray diagrams and use of 1/f = 1/p+1/q for converging and diverging thin lenses, familiarity with nomenclature (focal length, optical axis, focal point, focal plane, image characteristics--real vs. virtual, upright vs. inverted, size), ability to use object and image locations to determine q and p-- including correct signs, power of lens in diopters Combinations of lenses, use of the fact that each lens uses the image formed by the previous lens as its object. You will have no use for formulae for the magnification of an object by a lens or combination of lenses, though you may be asked to determine the size of an image from similar triangles. Physical Optics: Qualitative aspects of Huygen's method of following the progress of a wave front, diffraction, interference, conditions for constructive and destructive interference, the impact of Young's experiments proving that light is a wave, double and multiple slit interference, diffraction gratings, diffraction by a single slit, phase change on reflection and interference in thin films Miscellaneous: You should have a rough idea of what the eye and camera do, how to use a magifying glass, what is accomplished by a microscope and telescope (notice that each uses one lens to form a real image, and then studies that image with a magnifying glass), but there won't be any use for formulae (no f stops, no magnification formulae, etc.) There is a lot more to the study of polarization than we have done; it is a pity because the subject might turn out to be very useful to some of you in biological research. I suggest that you read up on it in a good encylopedia sometime--in fact, a whole course in physics is only an introduction, one that could be supplemented in many areas by a good encylopedia. If sometime you think you'd like to know more about something we started, don't overlook that very common resource. Problems to expect: You will need a straightedge as you will have some ray drawing. There will definitely be a problem in which you need the thin lens formula, and will have to use it twice as there will be a second lens. There will also surely be some problem on the reflection and refraction at a surface, somehow bringing in total internal reflection. There also has to be an interference problem--currently I am leaning toward one with a thin film, but might use slits instead, or something you've never seen before--you need to understand the basic concept.