Final Exam Review
Physics 103  Spring 98
There is no guarantee that everything on the exam
is mentioned here, but most things are.
Kinematics

Position, velocity, acceleration (average and instantaneous)

Velocity: v = v_{0} + at

Displacement: x = v_{0}t + at^{2}/2

v^{2} = v_{0}^{2} + 2ax

a = g = 9.8 m/s^{2} for objects near Earth's surface

1D, 2D and 3D motions, vectors
Newton's Laws

1. Law of inertia (mass)

2. Law of force: F = ma

3. Law of action and reaction

Normal forces (N)

Friction forces: f = mN

Force diagrams, pulleys
Energy

Work: W = F·s

Kinetic energy: KE = mv^{2}/2

Workenergy theorem: W = DKE

Gravitational potential energy: PE = mgh

Conservation of energy: E = KE + PE = constant (if
W_{NC} = 0)

Spring: F = kx, PE = kx^{2}/2

Power: P = W/t = F·v
Collisions

Momentum: p = mv

Impulse: I = FDt
= Dp

Conservation of momentum: Sp =
constant if F_{ext} = 0

Elastic versus inelastic collisions
Rotations

q = s/r, w
= v/r, a = a/r

Radians versus degrees (1 rad = 57.3º)

Centripetal acceleration: a_{r} = v^{2}/r

Centripetal force: F = mv^{2}/r

Universal gravitation: F = Gm_{1}m_{2}/r^{2}

Kepler's Laws

Torque: t = Fd (d is the moment
arm)

Equilibrium: SF = 0: St
= 0

Center of gravity

Moment of inertia: I = Smr^{2}

t = Ia, KE
= Iw^{2}/2, etc.

Angular momentum: L = Iw

t = DL/Dt
==> L = constant if t_{ext} =
0
Fluids

Elasticity, Young's modulus, Bulk modulus

Density: r = M/V (mass per unit
volume)

Pressure: P = F/A (force per unit area)

Variation with depth: P = P_{0} + rgh

Archimedes' principle, buoyancy

Continuity equation: Av = constant

Bernoulli's equation: P + rv^{2}/2
+ rgy = constant
Heat

Temperature, units, conversions, etc.

Thermal expansion: DL = aL_{0}DT

Ideal gas: PV = nRT or PV = NkT

Avogadro's number, moles, etc.

Average molecular kinetic energy: E_{av} = 3NkT/2

Heat: Q = mcDT (c
= 1 cal/g/ºC for water)

Heat of fusion: Q = mL_{f} (L_{f}
= 80 cal/g for water)

Heat of vaporization: Q = mL_{v} (L_{v}
= 540 cal/g for water)

Heat transport: conduction, convection, radiation

First law of thermodynamics: Q = DU
+ W

Work done by expanding gas: W = PDV

Second law of thermodynamics: e = 1  Q_{c}/Q_{h}
< 1  T_{c}/T_{h} < 1

Entropy: DS = DQ/T
(always increases for Universe)
Sound

Hooke's law: F = kx

Frequency for mass on spring: w = (k/m)^{1/2}

f = w/2p =
1/T (T is the period)

Frequency for pendulum: w = (g/L)^{1/2}

Velocity of wave: v = fl (l
is the wavelength)

Velocity of wave on a string: v = (F/m)^{1/2}

Velocity of sound in air: v = 331 m/s [1 + T(ºC)/273]^{1/2}

Sound intensity: I = P/A (power per unit area)

Sound level: dB = 10 log_{10}(I/I_{0}) (decibels)

I_{0} = 10^{12} W/m^{2} (approximate threshold
of hearing)

Doppler effect: f ' = f(v+ v_{0})/(v
 v_{s})

Resonance on strings and in air columns

Beat frequency: f_{B} = f_{1}  f_{2}
Closing Comments

Basic science / Applied science

Theory / Experiment

Objective / Subjective

Known / Unknown

What? / Why?

Hard science / Soft science

Science / Humanities  Religion