The Science Book: From Darwin to Dark Energy Some Topics
Introduction 7
c. 18,000 BCE Ishango Bone, Clifford A. Pickover 12
c. 11,000 BCE Wheat: The Staff of Life, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 14
c. 10,000 BCE Agriculture, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 16
c. 10,000 BCE Domestication of Animals, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 18
c. 7000 BCE Rice Cultivation, Michael C.Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 20
c. 5000 BCE Birth of Cosmology, Jim Bell 22
c. 3300 BCE Bronze, Derek B. Lowe 24
c. 3000 BCE Dice, Clifford A. Pickover 26
c. 3000 BCE Sundial, Clifford A. Pickover 28
c. 3000 BCE Sutures, Clifford A. Pickover 30
c. 2500 BCE Egyptian Astronomy, Jim Bell 32
c. 1850 BCE Arch, Clifford A. Pickover 34
c. 1650 BCE Rhind Papyrus, Clifford A. Pickover 36
c. 1300 BCE Iron Smelting, Derek B. Lowe 38
c. 1000 BCE Olmec Compass, Clifford A. Pickover 40
c. 600 BCE Pythagorean Theorem and Triangles, Clifford A. Pickover 42
c. 600 BCE Sewage Systems, Clifford A. Pickover 44
c. 350 BCE Aristotle’s Organon, Clifford A. Pickover 46
c. 350 BCE Platonic Solids, Clifford A. Pickover 48
c. 300 BCE Euclid’s Elements, Clifford A. Pickover 50
c. 250 BCE Archimedes Principle of Buoyancy, Clifford A. Pickover 52
c. 250 BCE Pi, Clifford A. Pickover 54
c. 240 BCE Eratosthenes Measures the Earth, Clifford A. Pickover 56
c. 240 BCE Sieve of Eratosthenes, Clifford A. Pickover 58
c. 230 BCE Pulley, Clifford A. Pickover 60
c. 125 BCE Antikythera Mechanism, Clifford A. Pickover 62
c. 50 Gears, Clifford A. Pickover 64
c. 126 Roman Concrete, Derek B. Lowe 66
c. 650 Zero, Clifford A. Pickover 68
830 alKhwarizmi’s Algebra, Clifford A. Pickover 70
c. 850 Gunpowder, Derek B. Lowe 72
1202 Fibonacci’s Liber Abaci, Clifford A. Pickover 74
1284 Eyeglasses, Clifford A. Pickover 76
c. 1500 Early Calculus, Jim Bell 78
1509 Golden Ratio, Clifford A. Pickover 80
1543 De Humani Corporis Fabrica, Clifford A. Pickover 82
1543 SunCentered Universe, Clifford A. Pickover 84
1545 Paré’s “Rational Surgery”, Clifford A. Pickover 86
1572 Imaginary Numbers, Clifford A. Pickover 88
1608 Telescope, Clifford A. Pickover 90
1609 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion, Clifford A. Pickover 92
1614 Logarithms, Clifford A. Pickover 94
1620 Scientific Method, Michael C. Gerald, with Gloria E. Gerald 96
1621 Slide Rule, Clifford A. Pickover 98
1628 Circulatory System, Clifford A. Pickover 100
1637 Descartes’ La Géométrie, Clifford A. Pickover 102
1638 Acceleration of Falling Objects, Clifford A. Pickover 104
1639 Projective Geometry, Clifford A. Pickover 106
1654 Pascal’s Triangle, Clifford A. Pickover 108
1660 Von Guericke’s Electrostatic Generator, Clifford A. Pickover 110
1665 Development of a Modern Calculus, Clifford A. Pickover 112
1665 Micrographia, Clifford A. Pickover 114
1668 Refuting Spontaneous Generation, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 116
1672 Measuring the Solar System, Clifford A. Pickover 118
1672 Newton’s Prism, Clifford A. Pickover 120
1678 Discovery of Sperm, Clifford A. Pickover 122
1683 Zoo Within Us, Clifford A. Pickover 124
1687 Newton as Inspiration, Clifford A. Pickover 126
1687 Newton’s Laws of Motion and Gravitation, Clifford A. Pickover 128
1713 Law of Large Numbers, Clifford A. Pickover 130
1727 Euler’s Number, e, Clifford A. Pickover 132
1733 Normal Distribution Curve, Clifford A. Pickover 134
1735 Linnaean Classification of Species, Michael Gerald with Gloria Gerald 136
1738 Bernoulli’s Law of Fluid Dynamics, Clifford A. Pickover 138
1760 Artificial Selection (Selective Breeding), Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 140
1761 Bayes’ Theorem, Clifford A. Pickover 142
1761 Causes of Cancer, Clifford A. Pickover 144
1761 Morgagni’s “Cries of Suffering Organs”, Clifford A. Pickover 146
1783 Black Holes, Clifford A. Pickover 148
1785 Coulomb’s Law of Electrostatics, Clifford A. Pickover 150
1797 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, Clifford A. Pickover 152
1798 Smallpox Vaccine, Clifford A. Pickover 154
1800 Battery, Clifford A. Pickover 156
1800 HighPressure Steam Engine, Marshall Brain 158
1801 Wave Nature of Light, Clifford A. Pickover 160
1807 Fourier Series, Clifford A. Pickover 162
1808 Atomic Theory, Clifford A. Pickover 164
1812 Laplace’s Théorie Analytique des Probabilités, Clifford A. Pickover 166
1822 Babbage Mechanical Computer, Clifford A. Pickover 168
1824 Carnot Engine, Clifford A. Pickover 170
1824 Greenhouse Effect, Clifford A. Pickover 172
1825 Ampère’s Law of Electromagnetism, Clifford A. Pickover 174
1827 Brownian Motion, Clifford A. Pickover 176
1828 GermLayer Theory of Development, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 178
1829 Blood Transfusion, Clifford A. Pickover 180
1829 NonEuclidean Geometry, Clifford A. Pickover 182
1831 Cell Nucleus, Michael C. Gerald, with Gloria E. Gerald 184
1831 Darwin and the Voyages of the Beagle, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 186
1831 Faraday’s Law of Induction, Clifford A. Pickover 188
1836 Fossil Record and Evolution, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 190
1837 Nitrogen Cycle and Plant Chemistry, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 192
1837 Telegraph System, Marshall Brain 194
1839 Daguerreotype, Derek B. Lowe 196
1839 Rubber, Derek B. Lowe 198
1841 Fiber Optics, Clifford A. Pickover 200
1842 General Anesthesia, Clifford A. Pickover 202
1843 Conservation of Energy, Clifford A. Pickover 204
1844 Transcendental Numbers, Clifford A. Pickover 206
1847 Semmelweis’s Hand Washing, Clifford A. Pickover 208
1850 Second Law of Thermodynamics, Clifford A. Pickover 210
1855 Bessemer Process, Marshall Brain 212
1855 Cell Division, Clifford A. Pickover 214
1856 Plastic, Marshall Brain 216
1858 Möbius Strip, Clifford A. Pickover 218
1859 Darwin’s Theory of Natural Section, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 220
1859 Ecological Interactions, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 222
1859 Kinetic Theory, Clifford A. Pickover 224
1859 Riemann Hypothesis, Clifford A. Pickover 226
1861 Cerebral Localization, Clifford A. Pickover 228
1861 Maxwell’s Equations, Clifford A. Pickover 230
1862 Germ Theory of Disease, Clifford A. Pickover 232
1864 Electromagnetic Spectrum, Clifford A. Pickover 234
1865 Antiseptics, Clifford A. Pickover 236
1865 Mendel’s Genetics, Clifford A. Pickover 238
1869 Periodic Table, Derek B. Lowe 240
1874 Cantor’s Transfinite Numbers, Clifford A. Pickover 242
1875 Boltzmann’s Entropy Equation, Clifford A. Pickover 244
1876 Gibbs Free Energy, Derek B. Lowe 246
1876 Telephone, Marshall Brain 248
1878 Enzymes, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 250
1878 Incandescent Light Bulb, Clifford A. Pickover 252
1878 Power Grid, Marshall Brain 254
1887 MichelsonMorley Experiment, Clifford A. Pickover 256
1888 Tesseract, Clifford A. Pickover 258
1890 Steam Turbine, Marshall Brain 260
1890 The Principles of Psychology Wade E. Pickren 262
1891 Neuron Doctrine, Clifford A. Pickover 264
1892 Discovery of Viruses, Clifford A. Pickover 266
1895 Xrays, Clifford A. Pickover 268
1896 Proof of the Prime Number Theorem, Clifford A. Pickover 270
1896 Radioactivity, Clifford A. Pickover 272
1897 Electron, Clifford A. Pickover 274
1899 Psychoanalysis, Clifford A. Pickover 276
1900 Blackbody Radiation Law, Clifford A. Pickover 278
1900 Hilbert’s 23 Problems, Clifford A. Pickover 280
1902 Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Clifford A. Pickover 282
1903 Wright Brothers’ Airplane, Marshall Brain 284
1903 Classical Conditioning Wade E. Pickren 286
1905 E = mc2, Clifford A. Pickover 288
1905 Photoelectric Effect, Clifford A. Pickover 290
1905 Special Theory of Relativity, Clifford A. Pickover 292
1908 Internal Combustion Engine, Marshall Brain 294
1910 Chlorination of Water, Clifford A. Pickover 296
1910 Main Sequence, Jim Bell 298
1911 Atomic Nucleus, Clifford A. Pickover 300
1911 Superconductivity, Clifford A. Pickover 302
1912 Bragg’s Law of Crystal Diffraction, Clifford A. Pickover 304
1912 Continental Drift, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 306
1913 Bohr Atom, Clifford A. Pickover 308
1915 General Theory of Relativity, Clifford A. Pickover 310
1919 String Theory, Clifford A. Pickover 312
1920 Hydrogen Bonding, Derek B. Lowe 314
1920 Radio Station, Marshall Brain 316
1921 Noether’s Idealtheorie, Clifford A. Pickover 318
1921 Einstein as Inspiration, Clifford A. Pickover 320
1924 De Broglie Relation, Clifford A. Pickover 322
1925 Pauli Exclusion Principle, Clifford A. Pickover 324
1926 Schrödinger’s Wave Equation, Clifford A. Pickover 326
1927 Complementarity Principle, Clifford A. Pickover 328
1927 Food Webs, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 330
1927 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Clifford A. Pickover 332
1927 Insect Dance Language, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 334
1928 Dirac Equation, Clifford A. Pickover 336
1928 Penicillin, Clifford A. Pickover 338
1929 Hubble’s Law of Cosmic Expansion, Clifford A. Pickover 340
1931 Gödel’s Theorem, Clifford A. Pickover 342
1932 Antimatter, Clifford A. Pickover 344
1932 Neutron, Clifford A. Pickover 346
1933 Dark Matter, Clifford A. Pickover 348
1933 Polyethylene, Derek B. Lowe 350
1933 Neutron Stars, Clifford A. Pickover 352
1935 EPR Paradox, Clifford A. Pickover 354
1935 Schrödinger’s Cat, Clifford A. Pickover 356
1936 Turing Machines, Clifford A. Pickover 358
1937 Cellular Respiration, Derek B. Lowe 360
1937 Superfluids, Clifford A. Pickover 362
1938 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Clifford A. Pickover 364
1941 Doped Silicon, Marshall Brain 366
1942 Energy from the Nucleus, Clifford A. Pickover 368
1945 Little Boy Atomic Bomb, Clifford A. Pickover 370
1945 Uranium Enrichment, Marshall Brain 372
1946 ENIAC, Clifford A. Pickover 374
1946 Stellar Nucleosynthesis, Clifford A. Pickover 376
1947 Hologram, Clifford A. Pickover 378
1947 Photosynthesis, Derek B. Lowe 380
1947 Transistor, Clifford A. Pickover 382
1948 Information Theory, Clifford A. Pickover 384
1948 Quantum Electrodynamics, Clifford A. Pickover 386
1948 Randomizedcontrolled Trials, Clifford A. Pickover 388
1949 Radiocarbon Dating, Clifford A. Pickover 390
1949 Time Travel, Clifford A. Pickover 392
1950 Chess Computer, Marshall Brain 394
1950 Fermi Paradox, Clifford A. Pickover 396
1951 HeLa Cells, Clifford A. Pickover 398
1952 Cellular Automata, Clifford A. Pickover 400
1952 MillerUrey Experiment, Derek B. Lowe 402
1953 DNA Structure, Clifford A. Pickover 404
1955 Atomic Clocks, Clifford A. Pickover 406
1955 BirthControl Pill, Clifford A. Pickover 408
1955 Placebo Effect, Clifford A. Pickover 410
1955 Ribosomes, Michael C. Gerald, with Gloria E. Gerald 412
1956 Parallel Universes, Clifford A. Pickover 414
1957 Antidepressant Medications Wade E. Pickren 416
1957 Space Satellite, Marshall Brain 418
1958 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 420
1958 Integrated Circuit, Clifford A. Pickover 422
1959 Structure of Antibodies, Clifford A. Pickover 424
1960 Laser, Clifford A. Pickover 426
1961 The Genetic Code for Protein Biosynthesis, Michael Gerald with Gloria Gerald 428
1961 First Humans in Space, Jim Bell 430
1961 Green Revolution, Marshall Brain 432
1961 Standard Model, Clifford A. Pickover 434
1963 Chaos and the Butterfly Effect, Clifford A. Pickover 436
1963 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Clifford A. Pickover 438
1964 Brain Lateralization, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 440
1964 Quarks, Clifford A. Pickover 442
1965 Cosmic Microwave Background, Clifford A. Pickover 444
1966 Dynamic RAM, Marshall Brain 446
1967 Endosymbiont Theory, Michael C. Gerald, with Gloria E. Gerald 448
1967 Heart Transplant, Clifford A. Pickover 450
1967 Saturn V Rocket, Marshall Brain 452
1969 ARPANET, Marshall Brain 454
1969 First on the Moon, Jim Bell 456
1972 Genetic Engineering, Marshall Brain 458
1975 Feigenbaum Constant, Clifford A. Pickover 460
1975 Fractals, Clifford A. Pickover 462
1977 Public Key Cryptography, Clifford A. Pickover 464
1978 Theory of Mind, Wade E. Pickren 466
1979 Gravitational Lensing, Jim Bell 468
1980 Cosmic Inflation, Clifford A. Pickover 470
1981 Quantum Computers, Clifford A. Pickover 472
1982 Artificial Heart, Marshall Brain 474
1983 Epigenetics, Clifford A. Pickover 476
1983 Polymerase Chain Reaction, Clifford A. Pickover 478
1984 Telomerase, Clifford A. Pickover 480
1984 Theory of Everything, Clifford A. Pickover 482
1987 Mitochondrial Eve, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 484
1990 Domains of Life, Michael C. Gerald with Gloria E. Gerald 486
1990 Hubble Telescope, Clifford A. Pickover 488
1990 World Wide Web, Marshall Brain 490
1994 Global Positioning System (GPS), Marshall Brain 492
1998 Dark Energy, Clifford A. Pickover 494
1998 International Space Station, Jim Bell 496
2003 Human Genome Project, Clifford A. Pickover 498
2004 Spirit and Opportunity on Mars, Jim Bell 500
2008 Human Cloning, Clifford A. Pickover 502
2009 Large Hadron Collider, Clifford A. Pickover 504
2016 Gene Therapy, Clifford A. Pickover 506
2016 Gravitational Waves, Jim Bell 508
2017 Proof of the Kepler Conjecture, Clifford A. Pickover 510
Notes and Further Reading 512
Contributors 521
Index 523
Picture Credits 527

For the Joy of Learning
Other Illustrated Books by Pickover
"My primary interest is finding new ways to continually expand creativity
by melding art, science, mathematics and other seemingly disparate areas
of human endeavor. I seek not only to expand the mind, but to shatter it."
