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The Medical Book
From Witch Doctors to Robot Surgeons

250 Milestones in the History of Medicine

Clifford A. Pickover

High Praise for Pickover

"Pickover contemplates realms beyond our known reality."
-- The New York Times

"Pickover inspires a new generation of da Vincis to build unknown flying machines and create new Mona Lisas."
-- Christian Science Monitor


250 of the most intriguing medical milestones including:


Anatomical Heart Pillow by The Teary Seal
Witch Doctor (10,000 B.C.) * Sutures (3000 B.C.) * Bloodletting (1500 B.C.) * Al-Nafis' Pulmonary Circulation (1242) * Leonardo's Anatomical Drawings (1510) * Cranial Nerves Classified (1664) * Separation of Conjoined Twins (1689) * Autopsy (1761) * Causes of Cancer (1761) * Hospitals (1784) * Unchaining the Lunatics (1793) * Alternative Medicine (1796) * Hysterectomy (1813) * Medical Specialization (1830) * Hypodermic Syringe (1853) * Antiseptics (1865) * Medical Thermometer (1866) * Modern Brain Surgery (1879) * Health Insurance (1883) * Cocaine as Local Anesthetic (1884) * Discovery of Viruses (1892) * Hearing Aids (1899) * Radiation Therapy (1903) * Genes and Sex Determination (1905) * Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (1906) * Searches for the Soul (1907) * Human Growth Hormone (1921) * Penicillin (1928) * Jung's Analytical Psychology (1933) * Informed Consent (1947) * Cause of Sickle-Cell Anemia (1949) * Tobacco Smoking and Cancer (1951) * DNA Structure (1953) * Birth-Control Pill (1955) * Levodopa for Parkinson's Disease (1957) * Laser (1960) * Angioplasty (1964) * CAT Scans (1967) * Reverse Transcriptase and AIDS (1970) * Statins (1973) * Near-Death Experiences (1975) * First Test-Tube Baby (1978) * Laparoscopic Surgery (1981) * Gene Therapy (1990) * Robotic Surgery (2000) * Human Cloning (2008) * And many more

Circumcision Placebo Effect Biological Weapons Medical Self-Experimentation Electroconvulsive Therapy Face Transplant Growing New Organs Cryonics and the Afterlife

Sampling of Images from Book

Explore the colorful mysteries of medicine as the adventure unfolds over 1000s of years.

Face Transplant
Face Transplant
Test Tube Baby
Test Tube Baby
Pulmonary Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
Prosopagnosia
Prosopagnosia
Appendectomy
Appendectomy
Acupuncture
Acupuncture
Paracelsus
Paracelsus
Corneal Transplants
Corneal Transplants
Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis
Trepanation
Trepanation
Glass Eye
Glass Eye
Virus Discovery
Virus Discovery
Bubonic Plague
Bubonic Plague
Searches for Soul
Searches for Soul

"Bucky Fuller thought big, Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -- WIRED

"A perpetual idea machine, Clifford Pickover is one of the most creative, original thinkers in the world today." -- Journal of Recreational Mathematics


Cool Book Reviews!


Molly spends her life within a colossal colon.
Join prolific polymath Clifford Pickover as he explores 250 of the most intriguing medical milestones from 10,000 B.C. to modern times. Along with odd and perplexing marvels like prehistoric skull trepanation and using cocaine as a local anesthetic, Pickover's timeline covers such engaging and diverse topics as the Hippocratic Oath, biological weapons, human cloning, general anesthesia, face transplants, near-death experiences, the placebo effect, alternative medicine, and the role of war and violence in accelerating the pace of medical understanding. Here also are remarkable thinkers who influenced the course of medicine, including French surgeon Ambroise Paré (one of the most celebrated surgeons of the European Renaissance) and Austrian physician Sigmund Freud (who pioneered psychoanalysis).

Chronologically organized, each entry consists of a short summary and one or more stunning full-color images, while the "Notes and Further Reading" section provides resources for more in-depth study. "For me," writes Pickover, "medicine cultivates a perpetual state of wonder about the limits of biology and the workings of the tissues and cells-and provides hope that most of the horrific health ravages of humankind will one day be a thing of the past."

Clifford A. Pickover is a prolific author, having published more than forty books, translated into over a dozen languages, on topics ranging from science and mathematics to religion, art, and history. He received his PhD from Yale University's Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, holds over 100 U.S. patents, and is an associate editor for several scientific journals. His research has received considerable attention from media outlets ranging from CNN and WIRED to The New York Times, and his website, www.pickover.com, has received millions of visits.

Follow Dr. Cliff Pickover on Twitter. Return to Pickover's main web page. Information on Pickover's other books.


Book Table of Contents

10,000 B.C.: Witch Doctor
6500 B.C.: Trepanation
4000 B.C.: Urinalysis
3000 B.C.: Sutures
2800 B.C.: Glass Eye
2400 B.C.: Circumcision
2000 B.C.: Ayurvedic Medicine
1600 B.C.: Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
1500 B.C.: Bloodletting
1000 B.C.: Greville Chester Great Toe
600 B.C.: Eye Surgery
600 B.C.: Sewage Systems
400 B.C.: Hippocratic Oath
300 B.C.: Huangdi Neijing
100 B.C.: Mithridatium and Theriac
70: Abortion
70: Dioscorides' De Materia Medica
190: Galenic Writings
900: Al-Razi's Comprehensive Book
1025: Avicenna's Canon of Medicine
1161: Persecution of Jewish Physicians
1210: Barber Pole
1242: Al-Nafis' Pulmonary Circulation
1284: Eyeglasses
1346: Biological Weapons
1510: Leonardo's Anatomical Drawings
1522: Burning of Dr. Wertt
1527: Paracelsus Burns Medical Books
1543: De Humani Corporis Fabrica
1545: Paré's "Rational Surgery"
1552: Eustachi's Rescued Masterpieces
1563: De Praestigiis Daemonum
1564: Condom
1580: Obstetrical Forceps
1597: Tissue Grafting
1601: Acupuncture Compendium
1618: Drawings of Pietro da Cortona
1628: Circulatory System
1642: Murder and Wirsung's Duct
1652: Lymphatic System
1664: Cranial Nerves Classified
1665: Micrographia
1678: Discovery of Sperm
1679: Brunner's Glands
1683: Zoo Within Us
1687: Discovery of Sarcoptes Scabiei
1689: Separation of Conjoined Twins
1707: Pulse Watch
1726: Mary Toft's Rabbits
1733: Cheselden's Osteographia
1747: Albinus's Tables of the Human Body
1753: A Treatise on Scurvy
1761: Autopsy
1761: Causes of Cancer
1761: Morgagni's "Cries of Suffering Organs"
1764: Cerebrospinal Fluid
1772: Exploring the Labyrinth
1774: Hunter's Gravid Uterus
1784: Hospitals
1784: Lavoisier's Respiration
1785: Digitalis
1792: Ambulance
1793: Unchaining the Lunatics
1796: Alternative Medicine
1796: Phrenology
1798: Smallpox Vaccination
1809: Cerebellum Function
1811: Bell-Magendie Law
1812: Snow Anesthesia
1812: Women Medical Students
1813: Hysterectomy
1816: Stethoscope
1817: Ligation of the Abdominal Aorta
1825: Leech Therapy
1829: Blood Transfusion
1830: Medical Specialization
1832: Anatomy Act of 1832
1832: Intravenous Saline Solutions
1833: Observations of St. Martin's Stomach
1842: General Anesthesia
1842: Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population
1846: Panum's "Measles on the Faroe Islands"
1846: Spirometry
1847: American Medical Association
1847: Semmelweis's Hand Washing
1848: Appendectomy
1850: Ophthalmoscope
1851: Plaster of Paris Casts
1853: Hypodermic Syringe
1854: Broad Street Pump Handle
1854: Nursing
1855: Cell Division
1857: Treatment of Epilepsy
1858: Gray's Anatomy
1861: Cerebral Localization
1862: Germ Theory of Disease
1863: Red Cross
1864: Dental Drill
1865: Antiseptics
1865: Mendel's Genetics
1866: Medical Thermometer
1872: Thyroid Surgery
1873: Cause of Leprosy
1879: Modern Brain Surgery
1881: Sphygmomanometer
1882: Cesarean Section
1882: Koch's Tuberculosis Lecture
1882: Phagocytosis Theory
1883: Health Insurance
1883: Salpingectomy
1884: Cocaine as Local Anesthetic
1890: Antitoxins
1890: Latex Surgical Gloves
1891: Neuron Doctrine
1892: Discovery of Viruses
1892: Osteopathy
1893: Discovery of Adrenalin
1894: Cause of Bubonic Plague
1895: D.D. Palmer and Chiropractic
1895: X-rays
1897: Cause of Malaria
1899: Aspirin
1899: Defibrillator
1899: Hearing Aids
1899: Psychoanalysis
1902: Caduceus
1902: Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
1902: Inborn Errors of Metabolism
1902: Cause of Sleeping Sickness
1902: Vascular Suturing
1903: Electrocardiograph
1903: Radiation Therapy
1904: Halstedian Surgery
1905: Corneal Transplant
1905: Genes and Sex Determination
1906: "Analytic" Vitamin Discovery
1906: Allergies
1906: Alzheimer's Disease
1906: Meat Inspection Act of 1906
1906: Patent Medicines
1906: Cause of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
1907: Imprisonment of Typhoid Mary
1907: Searches for the Soul
1910: Chlorination of Water
1910: Erhlich's Magic Bullets
1910: Flexner Report and Medical Education
1914: Common Cold
1914: Fluoridated Toothpaste
1914: Neurotransmitters
1916: Heparin
1920: Band-Aid Bandage
1921: Human Growth Hormone
1922: Banishing Rickets
1922: Commercialization of Insulin
1922: Truth Serum
1924: Human Electroencephalogram
1925: Modern Midwifery
1926: Liver Therapy
1927: Sterilization of Carrie Buck
1928: "The Rabbit Died"
1928: Iron Lung
1928: Pap Smear Test
1928: Penicillin
1929: IUD
1929: Maggot Therapy
1929: Medical Self-Experimentation
1933: Jung's Analytical Psychology
1935: Stanley's Crystal Invaders
1935: Sulfa Drugs
1937: Antihistamines
1937: Cause of Yellow Fever
1938: Electroconvulsive Therapy
1943: "Autistic Disturbances"
1943: Dialysis
1944: Blalock-Taussig Shunt
1946: Cancer Chemotherapy
1946: Transorbital Lobotomy
1947: Informed Consent
1947: Prosopagnosia
1948: Cortisone
1948: Nerve Growth Factor
1948: Randomized-Controlled Trials
1949: Cause of Sickle-Cell Anemia
1949: Mammography
1950: Antipsychotics
1951: HeLa Cells
1951: Tobacco Smoking and Cancer
1952: Amniocentesis
1952: Artificial Heart Valves
1953: DNA Structure
1953: Heart-Lung Machine
1954: Endoscope
1954: Kidney Transplant
1955: Birth-Control Pill
1955: Placebo Effect
1955: Polio Vaccine
1956: Autoimmune Diseases
1956: Bone Marrow Transplant
1956: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
1957: Levodopa for Parkinson's Disease
1957: Fetal Monitoring
1957: Medical Ultrasound
1958: Artificial Pacemaker for Heart
1958: Hip Replacement
1958: Pineal Body
1959: Nanomedicine
1959: Radioimmunoassay
1959: Structure of Antibodies
1960: Laser
1961: Self-Surgery
1961: Thymus
1962: Cryonics
1962: Mitochondrial Diseases
1962: Thalidomide Disaster
1963: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
1963: Liver Transplant
1963: Lung Transplant
1964: Angioplasty
1964: Beta Blockers
1964: Hand Transplant
1966: Pancreas Transplants
1967: CAT Scans
1967: Heart Transplants
1967: Hospice
1970: Reverse Transcriptase and AIDS
1972: Cyclosporine
1973: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
1973: Statins
1975: Near-Death Experiences
1976: Oncogenes
1977: Cochlear Implants
1977: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
1978: First Test-Tube Baby
1981: Fetal Surgery
1981: Laparoscopic Surgery
1982: Prions
1983: Epigenetics
1983: Polymerase Chain Reaction
1984: Peptic Ulcers and Bacteria
1984: Telomerase
1987: Small Bowel Transplant
1990: Gene Therapy
1991: Do Not Resuscitate
1998: RNA Interference
2000: Robotic Surgery
2001: Telesurgery
2003: Human Genome Project
2005: Face Transplant
2006: Growing New Organs
2008: Human Cloning

House vs Grey's Anatomy vs ER


Which TV show do you like better: House or Grey's Anatomy?
Do medical dramas like "Grey's Anatomy" or "House M.D." reflect health care's reality?
Click the image above to find out.


The Human Body by Cornelius De Witt


When I was a little boy in second grade, I stumbled upon The Human Body in a pile of books in a store. My mom bought it for me.
The illustrations in this book, published around 1960, were all created by Cornelius De Witt.
This book kick-started my interest in science and the human body.

Anatomical Art of Alex Grey

My favorite psychedelic anatomy artist is Alex Grey.

Anatomical Art by Norrit

My favorite creative representation of human anatomy is by Norrit at Worth1000.


Larry King, Britney Spears, and Cryonics

Larry King and Britney Spears are among the newest converts to cryonics and the religion of the deep freeze.
Cryonics is discussed in The Medical Book.
Pictured here are the former US television talk show host Larry King with his wife Shawn.

Book Index

Abdominal aorta, ligation of, 160-161
Abortion, 40, 46-47
Acupuncture, 42, 86-87
Adrenaline, discovery of, 248-249
AIDS, 56, 80, 464-465, 498
Albinus, Bernhard Siegfried, 116-117
Allergies, 288-289
Alternative medicine, 142-143. See also Acupuncture; Ayurvedic medicine; Chiropractic; Osteopathy
Alzheimer's disease, 290-291
Ambulances, 138-139
American Medical Association (AMA), 182-183
Amniocentesis, 390-391
Anatomy Act of 1832, 168-169, 202
Anatomy, artwork and texts. See also De Humani Corporis Fabrica: of da Cortona, 88-89; of da Vinci, 66-67; of Eustachi, 76-77; Gravid Uterus (Hunter) and, 130-131; Gray's Anatomy (Gray), 202-203; Osteographia (Cheselden), 114-115; Tables of the Human Body (Albinus), 116-117
Anemia, pernicious, 330-331. See also Sickle-cell anemia
Anesthesia: general, 152, 174-175; hypodermic syringes and, 192; local, cocaine for, 236-237; snow and ice for, 152-153
Aneurysms, 160-161, 478
Angioplasty, 450-451
Antibodies, structure of, 430-431
Antihistamines, 354-355
Antipsychotics, 384-385
Antiseptics and antiseptic surgery, 184, 212-213
Antitoxins, 238-239
Appendectomies, 186-187, 434, 484
Aristotle, 46, 54, 72, 284, 476
Aspirin, 258-259
Autistic disturbances, 360-361
Autoimmune diseases, 408-409
Autopsy, 120-121
Avicenna (Abu 'Ali al-Husayn ibn 'Abd-Allah Ibn Sina), 52, 53-54, 60, 70, 152, 178
Ayurvedic medicine, 28-29
Babies. See Pregnancy and birth
Band-Aid bandages, 316-317
Barber pole, 58-59
Barton, Clara, 196, 208
Bell-Magendie Law, 150-151
Bell, Sir Charles, 150, 454
Beta-blockers, 452-453
Birth. See Pregnancy and birth
Birth control. See Pregnancy prevention
Blackwell, Elizabeth, 154-155
Blalock-Taussig shunt, 364-365
Blood: anticoagulant heparin, 314-315; bloodletting, 32-33, 58, 246, 308; intravenous saline solutions and, 170-171; leech therapy, 162-163; pressure, instrument for checking, 224-225; sickle-cell anemia, 164, 256, 380-381; sugar, insulin and, 322-323; transfusions, 164-165; types, 164
Bone marrow transplants, 410-411
Book overview, 10-15
Bosch, Hieronymus, 472-473
Brain. See Nervous system
Broad Street pump handle, 194-195
Brunner's glands, 102-103
Bubonic plague, 44, 64, 250-251
Buck, Carrie, sterilization of, 332-333
Bunker, Chang and Eng, 108
Burning: of Dr. Wertt, 68-69; of medical books, 70-71
Caduceus, 266-267
Cancer: causes of, 122-123; chemotherapy, 366-367; discovery of viruses and, 244-245; early discussion of surgery, 54; HeLa cells and, 386-387; hysterectomies and, 156-157; lymphatic system and, 94-95, 122; mammography, 382-383; oncogenes and, 474-475; Pap smear test, 98, 338-339; radiation therapy and, 254, 278-279; Telomerase and, 494-495; tobacco smoking and, 388-389
Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), 54-55
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 412-413
Casts, plaster of Paris, 190-191
CAT (CT) scans, 108, 458-459
Cells: division of, 198-199; phagocytosis theory, 230-231
Cerebellum function, 148-149
Cerebral localization, 204-205
Cerebrospinal fluid, 30, 126-127
Cesarean section, 154, 226-227, 416, 434
Chain reactions, polymerase, 490-491
Chemotherapy, 366-367
Cheselden, William, 114-115
Chiropractic, 142, 252-253
Chlorination, of water, 302-303
Cholera, 170, 194-195
Cholesterol, statins and, 470-471
Chromosomes. See Genetics
Chronology/purpose of book, 12-15
Circulatory system, 90-91. See also Blood; angioplasty and, 450-451; artificial heart valves and, 392-393; artificial pacemakers and, 420-421; Blalock-Taussig shunt and, 364-365; CPR and, 412-413; defibrillators and, 260-261; electrocardiograph and, 276-277; fetal monitoring and, 416-417; heart-lung machine and, 396-397; heart transplants, 460-461; ligation of abdominal aorta, 160-161; origins of understanding, 90-91; pulmonary circulation, 60-61; statins and, 470-471
Circumcision, 26
Cloning, human, 514-515
Cocaine, as anesthetic, 236-237
Cochlear implants, 476-477
Cognitive behavioral therapy, 444-445
Cold, common, 308-309
Comprehensive Book of Medicine (al-Razi), 52-53
Condoms, 80-81
Consent, informed, 370-371
Cortisone, 374-375
CPR, 412-413
"Cries of suffering organs," 124-125
Cryonics, 438-439
Crystal invaders, 350-351
Cyclosporine, 466-467
Da Cortona, Pietro, 88-89
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 66-67
Defibrillators, 260-261
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Vesalius), 72-73, 96-97, 126-127
De Materia Medica (Dioscorides), 48-49
Dental drills, 210-211
De Praestigiis Daemonum (Weyer), 78-79
Dialysis, 362-363
Digestive system: stomach observations, 172-173; zoo within us and, 104-105
Digitalis, 48, 136-137
Dioscorides, Pedanius, 46-49
DNA structure, 394-395. See also Genetics
Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders, 500-501
Drawings, anatomical. See Anatomy, artwork and texts
Drills, dental, 210-211
Ears: cochlear implants, 476-477; hearing aids, 262-263; labyrinths of, 128-129
Ears, labyrinths of, 148
ECG (or EKG), 276-277
ECT, 358-359
Education, medical, 154-155, 306-307
EEG, 326-327
Ehrlich, Paul, 238, 272, 304, 430
Electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG), 276-277
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 358-359
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 326-327
Endoscopes, 398-399
Epigenetics, 488-489
Epilepsy and epileptics, 18, 40, 200-201, 326, 332, 468
Eustachi, Bartolomeo, 76-77
Eye(s): corneal transplant, 282-283; eyeglasses, 62-63; glass, 24-25; ophthalmoscope for, 188-189; surgery, 36-37
Face transplants, 510-511
Fetal monitoring, 416-417
Fetal surgery, 482-483
Flexner report, medical education and, 306-307
Fluoridation and fluoridated toothpaste, 182, 310-311
Forceps, obstetrical, 82-83
Freud, Sigmund, 236, 264-265, 348
Galenic writings, 50-51
Galen of Pergamon, 14, 22, 32, 50, 52, 54, 60, 70, 72, 204, 436
Gene therapy, 498-499
Genetics: amniocentesis and, 390-391; cancer causes and, 122; chromosomal theory of inheritance, 268-269; DNA structure and, 394-395; epigenetics and, 488-489; gene therapy, 498-499; human cloning and, 514-515; Human Genome Project, 508-509; inborn metabolism errors and, 270-271; of Mendel, 214-215, 268; mitochondrial diseases and, 440-441; oncogenes and, 474-475; polymerase chain reactions and, 490-491; RNA interference and, 502-503; sex determination and, 284-285; sperm discovery and, 100-101
Germ theory, 306-307
Glands. See also Hormones: Brunner's, 102-103; thymus, 94, 436-437
Glass eyes, 24-25
Gloves, latex, 240-241
Grafting tissue, 84-85
Gravid Uterus (Hunter), 130-131
Gray's Anatomy (Gray), 202-203
Greville Chester Great Toe, 34-35
Halsted, William, 192, 236, 240, 280-281
Hand transplants, 454-455
Hand washing, 184-185
Hardy, James D., 448, 460
Harvey, William, 11, 60, 90, 168
Health insurance, 232-233
Hearing aids, 262-263
Heart. See Circulatory system
HeLa cells, 386-387
Helminthic therapy, 104, 346
Heparin, 314-315
Herophilus of Chalcedon, 300
Hill, Austin Bradford, 378, 388
Hippocrates of Cos, 32, 40, 50, 54, 70, 152, 204, 222, 258
Hippocratic Oath, 40-41
Hip replacement, 422-423
Hormones: adrenaline discovery, 248-249; beta-blockers, 452-453; birth-control pills and, 402-403; Brunner's glands and, 102-103; cortisone, 374-375; dialysis and, 362-363; first test-tube baby and, 480; HGH, 318; insulin commercialization, 322-323; IUDs and, 342-343; mammography and, 382-383; pancreas transplants and, 456; pineal body and, 424-425; rickets and, 320-321; stomach observations and, 172-173; thyroid surgery and, 218-219
Hospice, 462-463
Hospitals, 132-133
Huangdi Neijing, 42-43
Human Genome Project, 508-509
Human growth hormone (HGH), 318
Humans, cloning, 514-515
Hunter, William, 130-131, 172
Hypodermic syringes, 192-193
Hysterectomies, 156-157
Infectious diseases. See also Vaccinations; specific diseases: antibody structures and, 430-431; antitoxins and, 238-239; Broad Street pump handle and, 194-195; Ehrlich's magic bullets for, 304-305; germ theory of disease and, 306-307; hand washing and, 184-185; penicillin and, 340-341; sulfa drugs and, 352-353
Informed consent, 370-371
Insulin, commercialization of, 322-323
Insurance, health, 232-233
Intravenous saline solutions and, 170-171
Iron lungs, 336-337
IUDs, 342-343
Jewish physicians, persecution of, 56-57
Jung, Carl Gustav, 348-349
Kidneys: dialysis, 362-363; transplants, 400-401
Koch, Robert, 228, 304
Labyrinths, of ears, 128-129, 148
Laparoscopic surgery, 156, 186, 234, 484-485, 504, 506
Larrey, Dominique, 14, 138, 152
Lasers, 432-433
Lavoisier, Antoine, 134-135
Leech therapy, 162-163
Leprosy, cause of, 220-221
Levodopa, 414-415
Ligation, of abdominal aorta, 160-161
Lister, Joseph, 22, 184, 212, 240
Liver therapy, 330-331
Liver transplants, 446-447
Lobotomies, transorbital, 368-369
Lunatics, unchaining, 140-141
Lungs. See also Circulatory system: CPR and, 412-413; heart-lung machine and, 396-397; iron, 336-337; measuring capacity of, 180; pulmonary circulation, 60-61; transplants, 448-449
Lymphatic system, 94-95, 122
Magendie. See Bell-Magendie Law
Maggot therapy, 344-345
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 326, 478-479
Malaria, 48, 98, 208, 256-257, 304, 356, 380
Malpighi, Marcello, 90, 98
Mammography, 382-383
Mary, Typhoid, 298-299
"Measles on the Faroe Islands" (Panum), 178-179
Meat Inspection Act of 1906, 292-293
Medical self-experimentation, 346-347
Medicine: scope of, 10-12; specializations, 166-167
Medicines, patent, 294-295
Mendel, genetics of, 214-215, 268
Metabolism, inborn errors, 270-271
Microbes, zoo within us, 104-105
Micrographia (Hooke), 98-99
Midwifery, 328-329
Mithridatium and Theriac, 44
Mitochondrial diseases, 440-441
Morgagni, Giovanni Battista, 120, 124-125
Moxibustion, 142-143
MRI, 326, 478-479
Murder, Wirsung's duct and, 92-93
al-Nafis, Ibn, 36, 60, 90
Nanomedicine, 426-427
Natural Magick (della Porta), 62, 262
Near-death experiences, 472-473
Nerve growth factor (NGF), 376-377
Nervous system: Alzheimer's disease and, 290-291; Bell-Magendie Law, 150-151; brain surgery, 222-223; cerebellum function, 148-149; cerebral localization, 204-205; cerebrospinal fluid, 30, 126-127; cranial nerves classified, 96-97; EEG and, 326-327; levodopa, Parkinson's disease and, 414-415; nerve growth factor and, 376-377; Neuron Doctrine and, 242-243; neurotransmitters and, 242, 312-313, 354, 384, 414; searches for the soul and, 300-301; trepanation and, 18-19
Neuron Doctrine, 242-243
Neurotransmitters, 242, 312-313, 354, 384, 414
Nursing, 196-197
Oncogenes, 474-475
Ophthalmoscope, 188-189
Organs, growing new, 512-513
Osteographia (Cheselden), 114-115
Osteopathy, 246-247
Pacemakers, artificial, 420-421
Pain relief, 48, 252, 258, 404, 442
Palmer, Daniel David, 142, 252
Pancreas transplants, 456-457
Panum's "Measles on the Faroe Islands," 178-179
Papanikolaou, Georgios Nicholas, 98, 338
Pap smear test, 338-339
Papyrus, surgical, 30-31
Paracelsus, 70-71
Paré, Ambroise, 34, 58, 74-75
Parkinson's disease, levodopa for, 414-415
Pasteurization, 206
Pasteur, Louis, 184, 198, 206, 212
Patent medicines, 294-295
Penicillin, 340-341
PET scans, 468-469
Phagocytosis theory, 230-231
Phrenology, 144-145
Pineal body, 424-425
Placebo effect, 12, 32, 86, 142, 252, 294, 378, 404-405
Plaster of Paris casts, 190-191
Polio vaccine, 406
Polymerase chain reactions, 490-491
Positron emission tomography (PET) scans, 468-469
Pregnancy and birth: amniocentesis and, 390-391; Cesarean section and, 154, 226-227, 416, 434; fetal monitoring and, 416-417; fetal surgery and, 482-483; first test-tube baby, 480-481; male participation in birth, 68-69; midwifery and, 328-329; obstetrical forceps, 82-83; pregnancy tests, dead rabbits and, 334-335; salpingectomy and, 234-235; sperm discovery and, 100-101; thalidomide disaster and, 442-443; ultrasound and, 416, 418-419, 482
Pregnancy prevention: abortion and, 40, 46-47; birth-control pills, 402-403; condoms and, 80-81; IUDs and, 342-343
Prions, 486-487
Prosopagnosia, 372-373
Prosthesis: glass eyes, 24-25; Greville Chester Great Toe, 34-35
Psychoanalysis, 264-265
Psychology: antipsychotics and, 384-385; asylum reforms, 140-141; autistic disturbances and, 360-361; cognitive behavioral therapy and, 444-445; De Praestigiis Daemonum (Weyer) and, 78-79; electroconvulsive therapy and, 358-359; hospice and, 462-463; Jung's analytical, 348-349; lobotomies and, 368-369; near-death experiences and, 472-473; phrenology and, 144; psychoanalysis, 264-265
Pulmonary circulation, 60-61. See also Circulatory system; Lungs
Pulse watch, 110-111
Purpose/chronology of book, 12-15
Rabbits: of Mary Toft, 112-113; pregnancy tests and, 334-335
Radiation therapy, 254, 278-279
Radioimmunoassay, 428-429
Ramazzini, Bernadino, 122
Randomized controlled trials (RCT), 378-379
al-Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya, 52-53, 54, 288
Red Cross, 208-209
Respiration, 134-135
Reverse transcriptase, AIDS and, 464-465
Rhazes. See al-Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya
Rheumatoid arthritis, 374, 408-409
Rickets, banishing, 320-321
RNA interference, 502-503. See also Genetics
Robotic surgery, 504-505
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 296-297
Röntgen, Wilhelm. See X-rays
Saline solutions, intravenous, 170-171
Salpingectomy, 234-235
The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain (Chadwick), 38-39
Sarcoptes scabiei, discovery, 106-107
Scope of medicine, 10-15
Scurvy, 118-119
Self-experimentation, medical, 346-347
Self-surgery, 434-435
Semmelweis, Ignaz, 184-185, 212
Sewage systems, 38-39, 176-177
Sex, determination of, 284-285
Sickle-cell anemia, 164, 256, 380-381
Sleeping sickness, cause, 272-273
Small bowel transplant, 496-497
Smallpox vaccination, 118, 146-147
Smoking tobacco, cancer and, 388-389
"Snake oil," 182-183
Snow anesthesia, 152-153
Soul, searches for, 300-301
Specialization, medical, 166-167
Spectacles, 62-63
Sperm, discovery of, 100-101
Sphygmomanometer, 224-225
Spirometry, 180-181
Stanley, crystal invaders of, 350-351
Statins, 470-471
Stem cells: bone marrow transplants and, 410-411; levodopa, Parkinson's disease and, 414-415
Sterilization, of Carrie Buck, 332-333
Stethoscopes, 158-159
Stomach, observation of, 172-173
Sulfa drugs, 352-353
Surgery. See also Transplants; specific surgeries: antiseptics and, 184, 212-213; barber-surgeons and, 58-59; DNR orders and, 500-501; fetal, 482-483; Halstedian, 280-281; hand washing and, 184-185; laparoscopic, 156, 186, 234, 484-485, 504, 506; lasers and, 432-433; latex gloves and, 240-241; "rational," of Paré, 74-75; robotic, 504-505; self-surgery, 434-435; telesurgery, 506-507; trepanation, 18-19; vascular suturing, 274-275
Surgical papyrus, 30-31
Sutures, 22-23, 30, 274-275, 280
Swedenborg, Emanuel, 126-127
Syphilis, 80, 304, 340, 370
Syringes, hypodermic, 192-193
Tables of the Human Body (Albinus), 116-117
Teeth: barber-surgeons and, 58-59; dental drills, 210-211; fluoride and, 182, 310-311
Telesurgery, 506-507
Telomerase, 494-495
Test-tube baby, first, 480-481
Thalidomide disaster, 442-443
Theriac and Mithridatium, 44
Thermometer, medical, 216-217
Thymus gland, 94, 436-437
Thyroid surgery, 218-219
Tissue, grafting, 84-85
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), 350-351
Tobacco, smoking and cancer, 388-389
Toe, Great (Greville Chester), 34
Toft, Mary, 112-113
Transfusions, blood, 164-165
Transplants: bone marrow, 410-411; corneal, 282-283; cyclosporine and, 466-467; face, 510-511; growing new organs and, 512-513; hand, 454-455; heart, 460-461; human cloning and, 514-515; kidney, 400-401; liver, 446-447; lung, 448-449; pancreas, 456-457; small bowel, 496-497; tissue grafting, 84-85; vascular suturing and, 274-275
A Treatise on Scurvy (Lind), 118-119
Trepanation, 18-19, 222
Trials, randomized controlled (RCT), 378-379
Truth serum, 324-325
Tuberculosis, 228-229
Twins (conjoined), separation, 108-109
Typhoid Mary, 298-299
Ulcers (peptic), bacteria and, 492-493
Ultrasound, medical, 82, 382, 390, 398, 416, 417-418, 482
Urinalysis, 20-21
Vaccinations: hypodermic syringes and, 192-193; smallpox, 118, 146-147
Van Leeuwenhoek, Anton Philips, 98, 100, 104
Vascular suturing, 274-275
Vesalius, Andreas, 72, 76, 96-97, 124, 126-127
Virchow, Rudolf, 120, 124, 198
Viruses. See also AIDS: biological weapons and, 64-65; cancer causes and, 122; common cold, 308-309; discovery of, 244-245; HeLa cells and, 386-387; HPV and Pap smear test, 338-339; oncogenes and, 474-475; tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, crystal invaders), 350-351
Vitamins: chemotherapy and, 366; discovery of, 286-287; heparin and, 314-315; kidney transplants and, 400; liver therapy and, 330-331; nanomedicine and, 426; rickets and, 320; scurvy and, 118; zoo within us and, 104-105
Waldeyer-Hartz, Wilhelm von, 122, 242
Water, chlorination of, 302-303
Weapons, biological, 64-65
Wertt, Dr., burning of, 68-69
Weyer, Johann, 78
Wirsung's duct, Johann Wirsung and, 92-93
Witch doctors, 15, 16-17
Witches and witchcraft, 78, 200
Women: hysterectomies, 156-157; medical students, 154-155; nursing profession and, 196-197; pregnancy issues. See Pregnancy and birth; thalidomide disaster and, 442-443
X-rays, 254-255, 278, 382, 420-421, 422-423, 458
Yellow fever, cause of, 356-357
Zoo within us, 104-105




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