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"Pickover contemplates realms beyond our known reality."
"Pickover inspires a new generation of da Vincis to build unknown flying machines and create new Mona Lisas."
"The polymathic Clifford Pickover discusses 'landmark laws of nature that were discovered over several centuries and whose ramifications have profoundly altered our everyday lives and understanding.'"  Kendrick Frazier, Skeptical Inquirer Radio interview on the book on biggest nighttime radio show in the U.S. 
Archimedes to HawkingLaws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them22 Centuries of Discovery
Clifford A. Pickover,
Oxford University Press
Book Praise"A ride through the history of worldchanging scientific ideas. Pickover pays homage to the great minds who have laid bare the mathematical machinery whirring just beneath the skin of reality. An impressively researched tour de force." Marcus Chown, author of The Quantum Zoo "Clifford Pickover has brilliantly succeeded in a monumental task. He has explained, in his usual lucid style, some forty of the greatest laws of physics, and sketched the lives and often eccentric personalities of the geniuses who discovered them. Pickover's pages reflect his vast knowledge of physics and his firm conviction that mathematics has an awesome external reality." Martin Gardner, author of The Colossal Book of Mathematics "The incomparable Clifford Pickover has written another rich science narrative that at once informs and entertains. There is no one writing today with such an encyclopedic knowledge of all things scientific, and Archimedes to Hawking covers the gamut of what is arguably the most important topic in all of science—the laws of nature. Are they discovered or invented? Do they correspond to things out in the world or only to thoughts inside our heads? These and numerous other tantalizing questions are answered as Pickover takes us through a brief history of nearly everything in the universe (and the universe itself)." Michael Shermer, Publisher, Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist Scientific American, author of Why Darwin Matters and The Mind of the Market 
"Bucky Fuller thought big, Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both."  WIRED "A perpetual idea machine, Clifford Pickover is one of the most creative, original thinkers in the world today."  Journal of Recreational Mathematics

Archimedes to Hawking takes the reader on a journey across the centuries as it explores the eponymous physical lawsfrom Archimedes' Law of Buoyancy and Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Hubble's Law of Cosmic Expansionwhose ramifications have profoundly altered our everyday lives and our understanding of the universe.
Throughout this fascinating book, Clifford Pickover invites us to share in the amazing adventures of brilliant, quirky, and passionate people after whom these laws are named. These lawgivers turn out to be a fascinating, diverse, and sometimes eccentric group of people. Many were extremely versatile polymathshuman dynamos with a seemingly infinite supply of curiosity and energy and who worked in many different areas in science. Others had nonconventional educations and displayed their unusual talents from an early age. Some experienced resistance to their ideas, causing significant personal anguish. Pickover examines more than 40 great laws, providing brief and cogent introductions to the science behind the laws as well as engaging biographies of such scientists as Newton, Faraday, Ohm, Curie, and Planck. Throughout, he includes fascinating, littleknown tidbits relating to the law or lawgiver, and he provides crossreferences to other laws or equations mentioned in the book. For several entries, he includes simple numerical examples and solved problems so that readers can have a handson understanding of the application of the law. A sweeping survey of scientific discovery as well as an intriguing portrait gallery of some of the greatest minds in history, this superb volume will engage everyone interested in science and the physical world or in the dazzling creativity of these brilliant thinkers. Clifford A. Pickover is the author of forty books on such topics as computers and creativity, art, mathematics, black holes, human behavior and intelligence, time travel, alien life, religion, medical mysteries, and science fiction. Pickover is a prolific inventor with over forty patents, is the associate editor for several journals, and puzzle contributor to magazines geared to children and adults. He lives outside New York City. 
Albert Einstein once remarked that "the most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible." Indeed, we appear to live in a cosmos that can be described or approximated by compact mathematical expressions and physical laws. In this book, I discuss landmark laws of nature that were discovered over several centuries and whose ramifications have profoundly altered our everyday lives and understanding of the universe…. The laws enable humanity to create and destroy  and sometimes they change the very way we look at reality itself.…
Centuries ago, most of the lawgivers saw God's hand in nature's laws…. Because the laws of nature provide a framework in which to explore the nature of reality, and because laws allow scientists to make predictions about the universe, the discoveries of the laws are among humanity's greatest noetic, or intellectual, achievements…. Just imagine the amazing adventures these passionate people had as they sought, discovered, and tested elegant formulations of phenomena at the heart of reality. In the end, these lawgivers changed the way we imagine and categorize our universe. 
"I do not agree with the
view that the universe is a mystery.... I feel that this view does not do justice
to the scientific revolution that was started almost four hundred years ago by
Galileo and carried on by
 Stephen Hawking,
Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays
The Laws of Nature
The Lawgivers
Is it Fair to Name a
Law after a Person?
Theories and Laws
Do We Discover or Invent
Laws?
Simple Mathematics and Reality
What is Reality Really?
Book Organization and Purpose
Distribution of Law Discoveries through
Time
Where the Lawgivers Lived
When Will the Last Law be Discovered?
Part I: 250 B.C. – 1700
Archimedes' Principle of Buoyancy, c. 250 BC
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion, 1609, 1618
Snell's Law of Refraction, 1621
Hooke's Law of Elasticity, 1660
Boyle's Gas Law, 1662
and Cooling, 1687 and 1701
Part II: 1700 – 1800
Bernoulli's Law of Fluid Dynamics, 1738
Lambert's Law of Emission, 1760
Bode's Law of Planetary Distances, 1766
Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics, 1785
Charles's Gas Law, 1787
Part III: 1800 – 1900
Henry's Gas Law, 1802
GayLussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes, 1808
Avogadro's Gas Law, 1811
Brewster's Law of Light Polarization, 1815
DulongPetit Law of Specific Heats, 1819
BiotSavart Law of Magnetic Force, 1820
Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction, 1822
Ampere's Circuital Law of Electromagnetism, 1825
Ohm's Law of Electricity, 1827
Graham's Law of Effusion, 1829
Faraday's Laws of Induction and Electrolysis, 1831 and 1833
Gauss's Law of Electricity and Magnetism, 1835
Poiseuille's Law of Fluid Flow, 1840
Joule's Law of Electric Heating, 1840
Kirchhoff's Circuit and Radiation Laws, 1845 and 1859
Clausius's Law of Thermodynamics, 1850
Stokes' Law of Viscosity, 1851
Beer's Law of Absorption, 1852
WiedemannFranz Law of
Conductivity, 1853
Fick's Law of Diffusion, 1855
BuysBallot's Wind and Pressure Law, 1857
Eötvös's Law of Capillarity, 1866
Kohlrausch's Laws of Conductivity, 1874, 1875
Curie's Magnetism Law and CurieWeiss Law 1895,
generalized in 1907
Part IV: 1900 and Beyond
Planck's Law of Radiation, 1900
Bragg's Law of Crystal Diffraction, 1913
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, 1927
Hubble's Law of Cosmic Expansion, 1929
Final Comments on the Beauty of Mathematics in Physics
In which we briefly discuss
the beauty of mathematics and human achievement, physics and religion, and additional
important physicists and equations, including: Einstein's principle of
massenergy conservation, Maxwell's Equations, Schrödinger's Equation, De Broglie's Equation, Einstein's Field Equation for General
Relativity, Dirac's Equation, the Balmer Series
Equation, Planck's Equation, YangMills Equation, Drake's Equation,
The Beauty of Mathematics Great Equations of Science Listmania
and Human Achievement "The Greatest Equations Ever" Physics and Religion 
16001700
Mersenne's Law (1626), Torricelli's Law
(1643)
17001800
Maupertuis's Rule (1746), Richter's Law (1791)
18001900
Malus's Law (1809), BellMagendie Law (1811) von Humboldt's Law (1817), FresnelArago Laws (1819), Mitscherlich's Law (1821), Hamilton's Principle (1835), Babinet's Principle (1838), Hess's Law (1840), Bergmann's Rule (1847), GladstoneDale Law (1858), Kopp's Law (1864), Matthiessen's rule (1864), Maxwell's Law (1866), BerthelotThomsen Principle (1867), Mendeleyev's Law (1869), LorentzLorenz Law (1870), Coppet's Law (1871), Boltzmann's Distribution Law (1871), Abney's Law (1877), Allen's Rule (1877), Nernst's Law (1880), Raoult's Law (1882), van't Hoff's Law (1885), RamsayYoung Law (1885), Cailletet and Mathias Law (1886), Dollo's Law (1890), Sutherland's Law (1893), Lorentz's Force Law (1895)
19002000
Grüneisen's Law (1908), Sabine's Law (1910), Child's Law (1911), GeigerNuttall Rule (1911), EinsteinStark Law (1912), Leavitt's Law (1912), Friedel's Law (1913), Moseley's Law (1913), Steinmetz's Law (1916), BoseEinstein Distribution Law (1924), FranckCondon Principle (1925), Pauli's Exclusion Principle (1925), FermiDirac Distribution Law (1926), MoskowitzLombardi Rule (1973), Hawking's Laws (1970s)
References
"Perhaps an angel of the Lord surveyed an endless sea of chaos, then troubled it gently with his finger. In this tiny and temporary
swirl of equations, our cosmos took shape."
Martin Gardner, Order and Surprise
"Once we have granted that any physical theory is essentially only a model for the world of experience, we must renounce all hope of finding anything like the correct theory... simply because the totality of experience is never accessible to us."  Hugh Everett 
Abney's Law of Luminosity, 468
Absolute zero, 327, 328, 332
Absorption. See Beer's Law of Absorption; Biot's
Absorption Law
Acoustics, 5, 172, 224, 227, 234, 247, 252, 289, 462,
473
Adams, John Couch, 101
Aerosols, 344, 345, 347
Airplane wings, 1, 126, 133134, 350
Allen's Rule of Body Form, 468
Amontons's Law of Friction, 168
Ampere (unit),
152, 244, 246, 248, 253, 269, 278, 303
Ampčre, AndréMarie, 6, 8, 161, 180, 215, 239245, 275
Ampčre's Circuital
Law of Electromagnetism, 223, 239245, 275, 278, 487
Arago, François, 161, 214, 217, 218, 244, 275, 461
Archimedes 4151,
277, 286, 295, 490, 497
Archimedes' lever formula, 497
Archimedes' Principle of Buoyancy, 4151
Arrhenius's Law of Dissociation, 387
Astrology, 55,
57, 61, 100, 101, 109, 128
Astronomy, 5, 7,
10, 11, 15, 70, 71, 7778, 101, 142, 290, 292, 317, 318, 391, 453, 458, 475, 480483.
See also Bode's Law of Planetary Distances; Galaxies; Hubble's Law of Cosmic
Expansion; Hawking's BlackHole Laws; Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion; Leavitt's Luminosity Law
Atomic bomb, 2, 262, 441
Atomic theory, 175181, 186, 200, 245
Avogadro, Amedeo,
197202
Avogadro's Gas Law, 8586, 190, 197202, 256
Avogadro's number,
197198, 201, 213, 229, 268
Babinet's Principle of Diffraction, 462
Ballooning, 166169, 225
Balmer Series Equation, 492493
Barometer, 80, 192, 456
Beauty of
mathematics, 485486
Becquerel, Antoine, 161, 401
Beer, August,
355358
Beer's Law of Absorption, 140, 355358
BellMagendie Law of Nerve Function, 460
Bergmann's Rule of Species Size, 463
Bernoulli, Daniel,
9, 11, 125136
Bernoulli, Johann,
115, 127, 129, 225
Bernoulli's Law of Fluid Dynamics, 1, 125136, 491
BernoulliEuler Law, 133
BerthelotThomsen Principle of Chemical
Reactions, 465
Betatron, 267
Big Bang, 84, 318, 408, 445, 449, 450, 482
Biot's Absorption
Law, 226
Biot, JeanBaptiste,
5, 9, 193, 222228
BiotSavart Law of Magnetic Force, 222228, 240241
Biot's Law of
Rotary Dispersion, 226
Black holes, 68, 304, 480483
Blackbodies, 28, 315, 318, 320, 409, 478. See also
Planck's Law of Radiation
Blood flow, 298, 300, 370
Bode, Johann,
10, 144151
Bode's Law of Planetary Distances, 19, 144151, 287
Bohm, David, 452
Boltzmann's constant, 213, 219, 334, 336, 346, 359,
410414, 419, 479, 492
Boltzmann's Distribution Law, 467
Boltzmann, Ludwig
9, 121, 213, 219, 324325, 334, 336, 378, 384, 411412, 467, 492. See also
StefanBoltzmann Radiation Law
Bolyai, János, 13, 290, 292
Born, Max, 33, 438, 495
BoseEinstein Distribution Law, 477
Bouguer,
BouguerBeer Law, 140, 357
Boyle, Robert,
6, 31, 74, 7677, 8592, 354
Boyle's Gas
Law, 19, 8592, 465
Bragg, William
Henry, 6, 11, 425433
Bragg, William
Lawrence, 11, 206, 425433
Bragg's Law of Crystal Diffraction, 425433
Brahe, Tycho, 52, 6063, 70, 208
Brewster,
David, 10, 203211
Brewster's Law of Light Polarization, 203211
Brownian
motion, 346, 362, 472
Bunsen, Robert, 319320, 382
Buoyancy, 4142, 51, 86, 344345
BuysBallot,
Christoph, 373378
BuysBallot's Wind and Pressure Law, 373378, 445
CailletetMathias Law of Density, 471
Calculus, 13,
44, 47, 102, 104, 106, 107, 110, 113, 115117, 127, 240, 347, 352, 420, 437,
458
Cannizzaro, Stanislao, 198
Capillarity, 217, 289, 356, 379384
Carnot, Sadi, 161, 325, 330333
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico, 77
Cavendish, Henry, 99, 159, 160, 259, 381, 467, 490
Cavitation, 185
Cephid variables, 446
Ceres, 145, 290
Charles,
Jacques, 19, 165172
Charles's Gas Law, 19, 86, 165172, 178, 192193
Child's Law of Diode Current, 474
Christianity, 68, 31, 32, 48, 56, 63, 89, 90, 106,
107, 208, 224, 271, 281, 305, 306, 309, 353, 437, 464
Chrystal, George, 247
Clausius,
Rudolf, 6, 323341, 376, 418
Clausius's Law of Thermodynamics, 306, 323341, 491
Coffee, 260
Coffin, James, 376
Colloids, 257, 258, 260, 261
Color blindness, 10, 175177, 180181
Condorcet, Nicolas de Caritat, 233
Conductivity. See
Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction; Kohlrausch's Laws of Conductivity;
WiedemannFranz Law of Conductivity
Copernicus, 28, 31, 37, 120, 142, 282, 358, 450, 491
Coppet's Law of Freezing Point Lowering, 467
Cosmological
constant, 449
Coulomb (unit),
152, 269
Coulomb,
CharlesAugustin, 89, 152164, 169
Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics, 8, 152164, 275, 381, 419, 487488
Coulomb's Law
of Friction, 158, 169
Creationism, 325
Crick, Francis, 431
Crystallography, 399. See also Bragg's Law of Crystal Diffraction
Crystalloids, 260
Curie temperature, 392396, 403
Curie, Irčne, 11, 402
Curie, Marie,
5, 11, 398404, 490
Curie,
Curie's Magnetism Law and CurieWeiss Law, 276, 392408
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 457
Damour, Thibaut, 304
Davy, Humphry, 9, 11, 12, 215, 252, 259, 270, 272,
273
De Broglie's
Equation, 434, 487, 492, 497
Debye, Peter, 219
Debye's T^{3} Law, 219
Descartes, René, 15, 71, 100, 120, 233, 354
Diamagnetism, 276, 395, 397, 400
Diamond, 66, 67, 212, 219, 230, 231, 232, 427, 430
Dichroic, crystals, 203
Diffraction, 114, 349, 425433, 462463, 476
Diffusion, 1,
233, 237, 256262, 346, 365371, 376, 472. See also Fick's Laws of Diffusion;
Graham's Law of Effusion
Dirac. See
FermiDirac Distribution Law
Dirac delta
function, 202
Dirac, Paul,
33, 202, 284, 441, 479, 486, 490491, 494495
Dirac's Equation, 33, 487, 493495
Dollo's Law of Evolution, 471
Doppler Effect, 375, 445, 475
Drake's
Equation, 493
Dulong, Pierre,
10, 162, 212221
DulongPetit FiveFourths Power Law, 214
DulongPetit Law of Specific Heats, 212221, 272
Dyson, Freeman, 51, 228, 238, 255, 281, 302, 495
E = mc^{2}, vii, 27, 135, 212, 454, 482, 488, 491493, 495497
Eddington, Arthur, 328
Effusion,
256264
Einstein, Albert,
vii, viii, 1, 2, 4, 14, 16, 17, 22, 27, 40, 55, 72, 73, 98, 100, 102, 103, 121,
142, 149, 151, 153, 163, 170, 183, 188, 212, 218220, 263, 264, 277, 293, 302,
346, 358, 382, 415, 416, 420, 421, 438, 443, 449, 466, 472, 475, 477478, 479,
482, 486, 488, 490, 491, 493495, 500.
diffusion
equation, 472
BoseEinstein distribution, 477478, 479
Brownian motion, 346, 472
cosmological constant, 449
heat capacity 218219
Hubble's Law of Cosmic Expansion, 449
photoelectric effect, 420
Planck and, 415, 416, 420
quantum and, 415, 416, 420
relativity. See Relativity
specific
heat, 219
Stoke's relation, 346
Einstein's
Field Equation for General Relativity, 486, 493, 495. See also Relativity.
Einstein's Principle of MassEnergy Conservation. See E = mc^{2}
EinsteinStark Law of Photon Absorption, 475
Elasticity, 33, 133, 159, 179, 349. See also Hooke's
Law of Elasticity
Electricity, vii, 8, 12, 24, 51, 66, 67, 172, 194, 199, 203, 206, 230, 236,
326, 332, 395, 399, 40, 422, 442, 465, 466, 469, 472475, 477, 487, 488, 491,
497. See also Ampčre's Circuital Law of
Electromagnetism; Coulomb's Law of Electrostatics; Faraday's Laws of Induction
and Electrolysis; Gauss's Laws of Electricity and Magnetism; Joule's Law of
Electric Heating; Kirchhoff's Electrical Circuit and Thermal Radiation Laws;
Kohlrausch's Laws of Conductivity; Nernst's Law of Electrode Potentials, Ohm's
Law of Electricity; WiedemannFranz Law of Conductivity
Electrolysis. See
Faraday's Laws of Induction and Electrolysis
Electrolytes, 194. See also Faraday's Laws of
Induction and Electrolysis; Kohlrausch's Laws of Conductivity
Electrosurgery, 303304
Emf, 266, 267, 274, 314
Entropy, 29, 323, 340. See also Clausius's Law of
Thermodynamics
Eötvös, Loránd,
379384, 495
Eötvös's Law of Capillarity, 379384
Eponymy. See
Laws, naming of
Equations of
science, 487488
Erdös, Paul 289
Euler, Leonhard, 43, 129, 130, 133, 134, 243, 286,
288, 492, 497, 498
Farad (unit),
270
Faraday (unit),
270
Faraday
constant, 268, 469
Faraday,
Michael, vii, 5, 6, 8, 9, 1112, 51, 215, 240, 261, 265281, 306, 490, 491
Faraday's Laws
of Induction and Electrolysis, vii, 240, 265282, 306, 486487, 489, 491
Fermat's Last Theorem, 498
FermiDirac Distribution Law, 479
Fermi energy, 219
Ferrel, William, 376
Feynman, Richard, 22, 28, 29, 69, 91, 106, 121, 135,
150, 220, 238, 245, 264, 279, 296, 334, 441, 443, 490
Fiber optics, 67
Fick, Adolf,
11, 365372
Fick's Laws of Diffusion, 1, 365372
Fick's
Principle (cardiac physiology), 370
First Law of Thermodynamics, 310, 331
Flamsteed, John, 148
Fluids, 112113, 310, 368, 437, 456457. See also
Archimedes' Principle of Buoyancy; Bernoulli's Law of Fluid Dynamics; Eötvös's
Law of Capillarity; Fick's Laws of Diffusion; Poiseuille's Law of Fluid Flow;
Stokes's Law of Viscosity; Torricelli's Law of Efflux
Fluorescence, 48, 346, 351, 355
Fourier series,
234236, 497
Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction, 229238, 251, 308, 360, 369, 486
Fourier's,
Joseph, 10, 162, 229238, 497
Fractals, 33,
141
FranckCondon Principle of Electronic
Redistribution, 478
Franz, Rudolf,
359364
Fraunhofer lines, 317
Fraunhofer, Joseph von, 317
Fresnel, Augustin, 208
FresnelArago Laws of Optics, 461
Friction, 94, 95, 97, 125, 157, 158, 168, 169, 307,
310, 312, 342346, 349, 350
Friedel's Law of Xray Reflection, 476
Galaxies, 2, 36, 98, 100, 103, 140, 141, 149, 302, 444451, 493
Galileo, xi, 4,
7, 32, 37, 49, 52, 53, 57, 60, 64, 88, 9496, 99, 108, 109, 112, 208, 255, 277,
358, 371, 443, 450, 451, 458, 490, 491
Gamow, George, 415, 449
Gardner, Martin, vi, viii, 2, 20, 210
Gas law, ideal, 86, 470
Gases, laws related to, 13, 19, 77, 216218, 267,
308309, 317, 319, 332337, 369, 376, 464, 465, 467, 469, 470, 472, 493, 497.
See also Avogadro's Gas Law; Boyle's Gas Law; Charles's Gas Law;
Gauss
constant, 287, 294
unit 284, 477
error
function, 293
Gauss, Carl, 5,
6, 9, 13, 43, 282296, 388, 498
brain
of, 293
Gauss's Laws of Electricity and Magnetism, 278, 282296, 487, 488
Gaussia, 293
Gaussian
distribution,
294
function,
294
gravitational
constant, 294
GayLussac,
Joseph, 13, 162, 165, 179, 190196, 225
GayLussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes, 13, 19, 165, 168, 190196, 200
GeigerNuttall Rule of Particle Energy, 474
GellMann, Murray, 486
Gibbs free energy, 337
Gibbs, Josiah, 121, 337339
GladstoneDale Law of Refraction, 464
God. See Religion and God
Gough, John, 176
Graham, Thomas,
910, 256264
Graham's Law of Effusion, 2, 86, 256264
Gravity, 8, 1719, 22, 81, 121, 122, 125, 146,
153154, 156, 150, 160, 161, 183, 220, 294, 343, 344, 348, 350, 357, 364,
380382, 406, 433, 445, 481482, 486, 488, 493, 495. See also
Grüneisen's Law of Thermal Expansion, 473
Guericke, Otto von, 275
Hagen, Gotthilf, 297, 301
HagenPoiseuille Law, 297
Hagenbach, Jacob, 301
Halley,
Harriot, Thomas, 15, 71
Hawking,
Stephen, xi, 1, 7, 23, 33, 103, 113, 143, 163, 348, 423, 480483
Hawking's
BlackHole Laws, 480483
Heat, 9, 33, 253, 312, 315316, 320, 409, 463, 464,
468, 473, 486, 501. See also Clausius's Law of Thermodynamics; DulongPetit Law
of Specific Heats; Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction; Joule's Law of Electric
Heating; Newton's Laws of Motion, Gravitation, and Cooling; Planck's Law of
Radiation; WiedemannFranz Law of Conductivity
Heaviside, Oliver, 202, 236, 487
Heisenberg,
Werner, 20, 358, 434443, 475, 479, 490, 491, 494
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, 2, 33, 255, 421, 434443
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 275, 382
Henry, Joseph,
240, 252, 281
Henry, William
184189
Henry's Gas Law, 184189
Heptadecagon, 288
Herschel, William, 148, 165, 184
Hertz, Heinrich, 274, 493
Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation, 338,
463
Hitler, Adolf, 416, 421, 440
Hooke, Robert,
910, 7484, 88, 96, 114, 490
Hooke's Law of
Elasticity, 19, 7484
Hoyle, Fred, 449
Hubble, Edwin,
444453
Hubble's Law of Cosmic Expansion, 444453, 493
Hubble Space Telescope, 446, 450
Human
achievement, 489490
Humason,
Humboldt, Alexander von. See von Humboldt, Alexander
Hurricanes, 133, 376
Huygens, Christian, 15, 66, 71, 77, 96, 490
Hysteresis, 477
Inertia, 9495
Inertial reference frame, 99
Inversesquare principles, 26, 53, 81, 103, 110, 111,
114, 222
Islam, 31, 32, 37, 61
Jeans, James, 40, 235, 263, 294, 354, 413, 455
Jews, 32, 84, 416, 421, 440, 475
Joule (unit),
172, 212, 303, 310, 380, 413, 477
Joule, James, 6, 7, 35, 181182, 303312, 331, 333, 490
Joule's Law of Electric Heating, 253, 303312, 331, 333
JouleThomson Effect, 309
Kaku, Michio, vii, 22, 83, 328
Kaleidoscope, 205, 207, 208
Kelvin (William Thomson) 6, 231, 244, 308310, 333,
338, 347, 352
Kepler,
Johannes, 67, 1011, 19, 22, 28, 31, 49, 5264, 7071, 73, 98, 100101,
110111, 142, 202, 208, 237, 358, 406, 450, 488, 491, 498
Kepler's Laws
of Planetary Motion, 5264
Kerst, Donald, 267
Kinetic Theory of Gases, 19, 29, 50, 334, 336, 369,
465, 467
Kirchhoff,
Gustav, 6, 10, 313222, 382, 418, 490
Kirchhoff's Circuit and Radiation Laws, 254, 289, 313222, 409, 411
Kirchhoff's
Laws of Spectral Formation, 316317
KleinGordon Equation,
Kohlrausch,
Friedrich, 11, 385391
Kohlrausch's Laws of Conductivity, 385391
Kopp's Law of Heat Capacity, 464
Kuhn, Thomas,
23, 264
Lambert,
Johann, 5, 10, 137143, 148, 356357
Lambert's Cosine Law, 137
Lambert's Law of Emission, 137143, 356357
Land, Edwin, 207
Landauer, Rolf, 325
Laue, Max von, 428, 429
Lavoisier, Antoine, 233, 277, 491
Law of Multiple Proportions, 178
Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, 288
Lawgivers
absence
of women, 27
afflictions,
910
childhood
geniuses, 5
early
death of wives, 6
effect
of chance, 1112
genius
families, 11
interest
in alien life, 1011
nonconventional
educations, 5
religiosity,
68, 32. See also Religion and God
resistance
of parents, 910
resistance
to ideas, 89
simultaneous
discoveries, 1213, 37
Laws
country or origin, 2930, 456
distribution in time, 2728, 455
empirical, 19
eponymous, 45, 1216, 2528, 35
invent versus discover, 2, 20
naming of. See Laws, eponymous
reality and, 2124
simplicity,
2, 14, 16, 17, 2023, 25, 40, 55, 60, 89, 91, 105, 124, 145, 150, 163, 189,
199, 211, 221, 245, 278, 280, 296, 334, 340, 364, 384, 424, 428, 436, 442, 454,
489, 501
versus equations, 487489
versus theories, 1620
Le Châtelier's Principle, 489
Leavitt's Luminosity Law, 475
Leibniz, Gottfried, 13, 110, 116, 128, 196, 420
Lemaitre, Georges, 449, 450
Lenz's Law, 266, 489
Leverrier, Urbain, 101
Light, 15, 17, 26, 44, 56, 81, 98, 102104, 106, 113114, 153, 218, 226,
270, 274, 276, 349351, 362, 369, 375, 382, 388, 438, 444, 445, 458, 459, 461,
463, 466, 468, 475, 481, 486, 491. See also Beer's Law of Absorption; Bragg's
Law of Crystal Diffraction; Brewster's Law of Light Polarization; Lambert's Law
of Emission; Optics; Planck's Law of Radiation; Snell's Law of Refraction
Lobachevsky, Nikolai, 13, 292, 486
Logarithm formula, 497
Logistic
mapping, 493
Lorentz's Force Law, 472
LorentzLorenz Law of Refractive Indices, 466
Lorenz number, 359
Lorenz, Ludwig, 359, 466
Loschmidt, Johann, 198, 201
Mach, Ernst, 9, 336
Magnetism, vii, 2, 5, 8, 11, 24, 51,
61, 66, 70, 76, 100, 172, 192, 193, 203, 242, 246247, 251, 361, 388, 390, 414,
441, 442, 472, 477, 480, 487489, 494, 497. See also Ampčre's Circuital Law of
Electromagnetism; BiotSavart Law of Magnetic Force; Coulomb's Law of
Electrostatics; Curie's Magnetism Law and the CurieWeiss Law; Faraday's Laws
of Induction and Electrolysis; Gauss's Laws of Electricity and Magnetism
Malus's Law of Polarization, 459
Mandelshtam, Leonid, 435
Marconi, Guglielmo, 274, 392
Mathematics and
beauty, 485486
Matrix mechanics, 438
Matthiessen's Rule of Electrical Resistivity,
465
Maupertuis's Rule of Least Action, 458
Maxwell, James
Clerk, 6, 8, 51, 121, 240, 242, 247, 265, 266, 272, 274, 277, 334, 338, 352,
373, 465, 467, 488, 490. See also
Maxwell's Equations
Maxwell's
Equations, 27, 66, 240, 278279, 328, 473, 486, 487, 492, 493, 497
Maxwell's Law of Gas Viscosity, 465
Mayer, Julius von, 304
Mayer, Tobias, 148
Mean, arithmeticgeometric, 287288
Meitner, Lisa, 336
MEMS, 169
Mendeleyev's Periodic Law of Elements, 466
Mersenne's Law of Vibration, 455
Merton, Robert,
4, 15
Meteorology. See BuysBallot's Wind and Pressure Law
Michell, John, 159160, 381
Mitscherlich's Law of Isomorphism, 461
Momentum, 19, 53, 54, 9598, 434435, 439, 440, 494
MOND, 103
Monopoles, magnetic, 278, 284, 487, 494
Moseley's Law of Xray Emission, 476
MoskowitzLombardi Rule of
Magnetic Distribution,
480
Napier's logarithm formula, 497
Navier, Claude,
349, 350
NavierStokes
Equations, 350
Nernst, Walter, 327, 469
Nernst's Law of Electrode Potentials, 469
Neumann, Franz, 301
Newton, Isaac,
vii, ix, 13, 79, 1314, 1718, 31, 43, 7576, 8182, 93124, 208, 224, 252,
277, 286, 295, 408, 424, 442, 443, 454, 490492, 498, 501
Newton's Laws
of Motion, Gravitation, and Cooling, 1, 7, 19, 22, 26, 28, 31, 51, 5355, 61, 81, 93124, 153154, 382, 391, 443, 488,
492, 497
Newtonian fluids, 113
Nobel Prize, 5, 11, 33, 236, 248, 318, 379, 390, 396,
401, 402, 411, 415, 417, 420, 421, 426, 427, 429, 430, 439, 444, 466, 469, 471,
475, 476
Ohm (unit),
172, 246, 248, 250, 253, 303, 361
Ohm, Georg, 5,
89, 246255
Ohm's Law of Electricity, 8, 19, 246255, 319, 385, 391
Olbers, Heinrich, 202, 285, 446
Onnes, Heike, 248
Optics, 9, 17, 56, 57, 6667, 113, 114, 117, 118, 226, 350, 380, 429, 459,
461, 462. See also Beer's Law of Absorption; Brewster's Law of Light
Polarization; FresnelArago Laws of Optics; Lambert's Law of Emission; Light;
Snell's Law of Refraction
Řrsted, Hans Christian, 8, 225, 239242, 275, 277
Osmosis, 363, 470
Ostwald, Wilhelm, 9, 336, 387, 389, 390
Ostwald's Dilution Law, 387
Parallel universes, 103, 451
Paramagnetism. See Curie's Magnetism Law and
CurieWeiss Law
Pascal (unit), 85, 174, 342
Pauli Wolfgang, 436439, 478479, 491
Pauli's Exclusion Principle, 478479
Penrose, Roger, 21, 2324, 188, 311, 482
Permittivity, 152, 154, 155, 287, 419
Persian Gulf War, 345
Perutz, Max, 426, 428, 431
Petit, Alexis,
5, 6, 9, 212221
Photoelectric
effect, 420
Photonic
lattice, 422
Pi (π), 5, 46, 47, 49, 54, 70,111, 138, 141, 152, 154, 219, 222, 223,
234, 293, 294, 297, 301, 342, 359, 412, 419, 434, 480, 492, 493, 496
Piazzi, Giuseppe, 290
Piezoelectricity, 398, 399
Planck units,
418419, 481
Planck, Max, 6,
263, 320, 409424
Planck's
constant, 219, 410, 414, 415, 419, 434, 493, 494, 497
Planck's Law of Radiation, 28, 316, 409424
Planets, positions and motions. See Bode's Law of
Planetary Distances; Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion;
Platonic solids, 5859, 60
Poise (unit),
301
Poiseuille,
297302
Poiseuille's Law of Fluid Flow, 250, 297302
Poisson, Simeon, 162, 349
Polarization, 226, 276, 350, 351, 362, 459, 461. See also Brewster's Law of Light Polarization
Polaroid, 204
Popper, Karl,
17, 150, 263, 264, 321, 354, 391, 483
Pressures, 10, 42, 43, 46, 50, 80, 113, 134, 217,
250, 261, 306309, 325, 331, 337, 350, 363, 369, 370, 465, 469, 470, 489, 491.
See also Bernoulli's Law of Fluid Dynamics; BuysBallot's Wind and Pressure
Law; Gases, laws related to; Poiseuille's Law of Fluid Flow
Priestly, Joseph, 160, 259
Prime number theorem, 288289
Principle of Least Action, 458, 492
Ptolemy, 71, 120, 210
Pythagorean Theorem, 497
Quantum
mechanics, 18, 28, 29, 3233, 98, 102, 164, 212, 218, 221, 248, 255, 281, 328,
341, 361, 364, 406, 409424, 435, 438441, 461, 466, 474, 475, 478479, 481,
487, 494, 499. See also Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle; Pauli's Exclusion
Principle; Planck's Radiation Law
Quantum nanowires,
361
Raindrops, 69, 96, 112, 344, 345, 350
RamsayYoung Law of Vapor Pressures, 470
Raoult's Law of Vapor Pressures, 469
RayleighJeans Law, 413, 416
Reality and
laws, 2124
Redshifts, 444, 445, 450
Refraction. See Snell's Law of Refraction; LorentzLorenz
Law of Refractive Indices
Relativity, 28, 341, 440, 475
differences
between special and general, 102
general theory, 17,
22, 29, 55, 73, 102, 103, 124, 163, 221, 382, 449, 481, 482, 488, 490, 493, 495
special theory, 16,
29, 98, 102, 153, 188, 189, 381, 416, 466, 488, 490, 491, 494
terminology, viiiix
Religion and
God, v, vi, 1, 3, 4, 68, 10, 22, 31, 32, 37, 48, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62, 63,
77, 83, 87, 89, 90, 92, 105108, 112, 113, 120, 121, 128, 135, 140, 141, 146,
148, 149, 150, 164, 170, 182183, 188, 196, 201, 205, 206, 228, 241, 243, 244,
254, 269271, 281, 286, 293, 295, 302, 305, 306, 310, 311, 347349, 352354,
358, 362, 374, 378, 384, 391, 404, 406, 408, 416, 418, 419, 421, 423, 427, 437,
441, 442, 447, 454, 456, 464, 483, 485, 489, 498500
Resistance, electrical. See Ohm's Law of Electricity;
Matthiessen's Rule of Electrical Resistivity
Richter's Law of Chemical Reactions, 459
Righthand rule, 223224
Robertson, H. P., 449
Rowland's Law, 247
Rutherford, Ernest, 23, 153, 402, 490491
Sabine's Law of Acoustics, 473
SaintVenant, Adhémar de, 349
Sandage, Allan, 446
Sandemanian, 269271, 273, 275
Savart (unit),
227
Savart, Félix,
5, 222228
Schrödinger,
Erwin, 436, 479, 490, 491
Schrödinger's Equation, 27, 436, 487, 489, 492, 493495
Schwarzchild, Karl, 481
Scuba divers, 174, 185
Second Law of Thermodynamics, 245, 323339, 391,
491. See also Clausius's Law of
Thermodynamics; Heat; Joule's Law of Electric Heating
Sedimentation, 342, 343, 345
Shannon,
Claude, 325
Simplicity. See Laws, simplicity
Simultaneity. See Lawgivers, simultaneous discoveries
Snell,
Willebrord, 15, 6573, 203
Snell's Law of
Refraction, 19, 6573, 203, 391
Sommerfeld, Arnold, 436, 437, 440
Spectroscopy, 260, 315320, 351, 355, 357, 362, 429,
430, 438, 439, 445, 446, 450, 468, 475, 476, 478, 479, 480, 492. See also Planck's Law of Radiation
StefanBoltzmann Radiation Law, 411412
Steinmetz's Law of Magnetism, 477
Stenger, Victor, 24
Stereoscope, 208
Stigler's Law
of Eponymy, 1415
Stokes Law of Fluorescence, 351
Stokes, George,
3, 342354
Stokes's Law of Viscosity, 342354
StokesEinstein
Relation, 346
String theory, 16, 22, 210, 302
Surface tension, 379381
Sutherland's Law of Gas Viscosity, 472
Symmetry, 2, 58, 72, 83, 101, 188189, 208,
283, 284, 399, 424, 436, 442, 448, 476, 486
Tamm, Igor, 435
Tegmark, Max, 23
Thenard, Jacques, 162, 194, 195, 216
Theories versus laws, 1620
Thermodynamics 9, 11, 29, 245, 304, 323339, 403,
411, 418, 481, 491, 501. See also
Clausius's Law of Thermodynamics; Heat; Joule's Law of Electric Heating
Third Law of Thermodynamics, 327
Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin) 6, 231, 244, 308310,
333, 338, 347, 352
Titius, Daniel, 144147
TitiusBode Law 144147. See also Bode's Law
Torricelli's
Law of Efflux, 456
Torsion balance, 99, 157160, 362, 381, 382, 399
Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation
Ultraviolet catastrophe, 413
van't Hoff's Law of Osmotic Pressure, 470
Venturi effect, 126
Viscosity, 113, 125, 158, 297301, 310, 342350, 388,
457, 465, 472
von Humboldt, Alexander, 190, 193, 460
von Humboldt's Law of Tree Lines, 460
Watson, James, 431
Weber, Wilhelm, 289, 388, 390
Webers (unit), 240, 266, 278
Weiss,
Wiedemann,
Gustav, 11, 359364
WiedemannFranz Law of Conductivity, 11, 359364
WiedemannFranzLorenz Law, 359
Wien's Displacement Law, 410411, 416
Wien's Radiation Law, 416
Wigner,
Wilberforce, Lionel, 298
Xrays, 48, 267, 351, 392, 476. See also Bragg's Law
of Crystal Diffraction
YangMills Equation, 493
Young's modulus, 75, 133
Zach, Franz Xaver von, 290
Zeropoint motion, 328
Debate the meaning of scientific laws
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